Dengue viruses (DENV) are the most common cause of mosquito-borne viral illness in the world, affecting approximately 400 million people annually. Symptomatic illness ranges from a mild, self-limiting febrile illness to one manifested by plasma leakage that can lead to vascular collapse and death. In this issue of the JCI, Rathore et al. report that DENV can cause mast cell degranulation independently of mast cell infection, resulting in the release of the vasoactive mediators chymase and tryptase.
Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine With Deletion of RNA Synthesis Regulatory Protein M2-2 and Cold Passage Mutations Is Overattenuated.
This randomized (2:1 vaccine to placebo), double-blind, placebo controlled study (https://clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02890381/NCT02948127) was conducted at 5 clinical trials sites with accrual between October 5 and October 26, 2016. Eligible children were ≥6 and <25 months of age, healthy, with no history of lung disease, and were RSV-seronegative at screening, defined as having a serum RSV 60% plaque-reduction neutralizing titer (PRNT60) ≤1:40.
Rockland county’s proposed ban against unvaccinated minors: Balancing disease control, trust, and liberty
From the public health lens, we argue: (1) public health officials have the responsibility to protect the public from harm, especially in the context of an outbreak, (2) the pathogen’s epidemiology, including the severity of the disease, and transmission dynamics should inform the methods of disease control, and (3) public health officials have the authority to implement certain, scientifically sound control measures during an outbreak.
Pregnant women & vaccines against emerging epidemic threats: Ethics guidance for preparedness, research, and response.
This Guidance offers 22 concrete recommendations that provide a roadmap for the ethically responsible, socially just, and respectful inclusion of the interests of pregnant women in the development and deployment of vaccines against emerging pathogens. The Guidance was developed by the Pregnancy Research Ethics for Vaccines, Epidemics, and New Technologies (PREVENT) Working Group – a […]
Beyond Neutralizing Antibody Levels: The Epitope Specificity of Antibodies Induced by NIH Monovalent Dengue Virus Vaccines
After monovalent vaccination, subjects developed high levels of nAbs that mainly targeted epitopes that are unique (type-specific) to each DENV serotype. The DENV1, 2 and 4 monovalent vaccines induced type-specific nAbs directed to quaternary structure envelope (E) epitopes known to be targets of strongly nAbs induced by wild type DENV infections.
In the absence of good animal models, Controlled Human Infection Models (CHIMs) are useful to assess efficacy of new vaccine candidates against Enterotoxic Escherichia coli(ETEC), as well as other preventiveor therapeutic interventions. At the 2018 Vaccines Against Shigella and ETEC (VASE) conference, a work-shop was held to further review and discuss new challenge model developments and key issues related to further model standardization. During the workshop, invited speakers briefly summarized for attendees recent developments and main agenda issues before workshop participants were divided into four groups for more focused discussions.
With the increasing geographic expansion of dengue and incidence of the disease in travelers, offering pre-travel vaccination against dengue would provide protection for hundreds of thousands of persons traveling to dengue-endemic countries, including tourists, persons traveling for business , military personnel and humanitarian aid workers.
As the world prepares to fight Lassa fever, the interests of pregnant women must be part of the planning
Lassa fever is on the World Health Organization’s R&D Blueprint of priority diseases and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness and Innovation (CEPI) has invested in the development of several candidate vaccines against Lassa fever, some of which will enter clinical trials this year.