Harmonization of Zika neutralization assays by using the WHO International Standard for anti-Zika virus antibody
During outbreaks of emerging viruses, such as the Zika outbreak in 2015–2016, speed and accuracy in detection of infection are critical factors to control the spread of the disease; often serological and diagnostic methods for emerging viruses are not well developed and validated. Thus, vaccines and treatments are difficult to evaluate due to the lack of comparable methods. In this study, we show how the 1st WHO International Standard for anti-Zika antibody was able to harmonize the neutralization titres of a panel of serological Zika-positive samples from laboratories worldwide.
Safety and Immunogenicity of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine RSV/ΔNS2/Δ1313/I1314L in RSV-Seronegative Children
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of severe acute lower respiratory illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide, and the relative importance of RSV has increased as the burden of bacterial pneumonia has declined with vaccine implementation. According to global estimates, RSV caused approximately 33 million cases of LRI and approximately 118 000 deaths in children <5 years of age in 2015.
Dengue viruses (DENV) are the most common cause of mosquito-borne viral illness in the world, affecting approximately 400 million people annually. Symptomatic illness ranges from a mild, self-limiting febrile illness to one manifested by plasma leakage that can lead to vascular collapse and death. In this issue of the JCI, Rathore et al. report that DENV can cause mast cell degranulation independently of mast cell infection, resulting in the release of the vasoactive mediators chymase and tryptase.
Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine With Deletion of RNA Synthesis Regulatory Protein M2-2 and Cold Passage Mutations Is Overattenuated.
This randomized (2:1 vaccine to placebo), double-blind, placebo controlled study (https://clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02890381/NCT02948127) was conducted at 5 clinical trials sites with accrual between October 5 and October 26, 2016. Eligible children were ≥6 and <25 months of age, healthy, with no history of lung disease, and were RSV-seronegative at screening, defined as having a serum RSV 60% plaque-reduction neutralizing titer (PRNT60) ≤1:40.
Rockland county’s proposed ban against unvaccinated minors: Balancing disease control, trust, and liberty
From the public health lens, we argue: (1) public health officials have the responsibility to protect the public from harm, especially in the context of an outbreak, (2) the pathogen’s epidemiology, including the severity of the disease, and transmission dynamics should inform the methods of disease control, and (3) public health officials have the authority to implement certain, scientifically sound control measures during an outbreak.
Beyond Neutralizing Antibody Levels: The Epitope Specificity of Antibodies Induced by NIH Monovalent Dengue Virus Vaccines
After monovalent vaccination, subjects developed high levels of nAbs that mainly targeted epitopes that are unique (type-specific) to each DENV serotype. The DENV1, 2 and 4 monovalent vaccines induced type-specific nAbs directed to quaternary structure envelope (E) epitopes known to be targets of strongly nAbs induced by wild type DENV infections.
In the absence of good animal models, Controlled Human Infection Models (CHIMs) are useful to assess efficacy of new vaccine candidates against Enterotoxic Escherichia coli(ETEC), as well as other preventiveor therapeutic interventions. At the 2018 Vaccines Against Shigella and ETEC (VASE) conference, a work-shop was held to further review and discuss new challenge model developments and key issues related to further model standardization. During the workshop, invited speakers briefly summarized for attendees recent developments and main agenda issues before workshop participants were divided into four groups for more focused discussions.