In the absence of good animal models, Controlled Human Infection Models (CHIMs) are useful to assess efficacy of new vaccine candidates against Enterotoxic Escherichia coli(ETEC), as well as other preventiveor therapeutic interventions. At the 2018 Vaccines Against Shigella and ETEC (VASE) conference, a work-shop was held to further review and discuss new challenge model developments and key issues related to further model standardization. During the workshop, invited speakers briefly summarized for attendees recent developments and main agenda issues before workshop participants were divided into four groups for more focused discussions.
With the increasing geographic expansion of dengue and incidence of the disease in travelers, offering pre-travel vaccination against dengue would provide protection for hundreds of thousands of persons traveling to dengue-endemic countries, including tourists, persons traveling for business , military personnel and humanitarian aid workers.
As the world prepares to fight Lassa fever, the interests of pregnant women must be part of the planning
Lassa fever is on the World Health Organization’s R&D Blueprint of priority diseases and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness and Innovation (CEPI) has invested in the development of several candidate vaccines against Lassa fever, some of which will enter clinical trials this year.
Informing randomized clinical trials of respiratory syncytial virus vaccination during pregnancy to prevent recurrent childhood wheezing: A sample size analysis.
Vaccination of pregnant women against RSV may protect their infants against RSV illness during their first months of life, primarily through maternal antibodies transported across the placenta. While licensure of RSV vaccines for use during pregnancy is likely to be sought for the primary indication of preventing acute RSV illness in young infants, the public health value of maternal RSV vaccines would be greater if the vaccine also prevented wheeze-associated disorders.
Cutting Edge: Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Multifunctional and Cytotoxic Antiviral Responses of Zika Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells
Zika virus (ZIKV) constitutes an increasing public health
problem. Previous studies have shown that CD8+ T cells
play an important role in ZIKV-specific protective immunity.
We have previously defined antigenic targets of
the ZIKV-specific CD8+ T cell response in humans. In
this study, we characterized the quality and phenotypes of
these responses by a combined use of flow cytometry and
transcriptomic methods, using PBMCs from donors deriving
from different geographical locations collected in
the convalescent phase of infection.
Genetic Variation between Dengue Virus Type 4 Strains Impacts Human Antibody Binding and Neutralization
There are four distinct DENV serotypes, and within DENV4, there are five distinct genotypes. The impact of genotypic diversity is not known, nor is it clear whether infection with one DENV4 genotype results in protective immunity against the other genotypes. To measure the impact of DENV4 genetic diversity, we generated an isogenic panel of viruses containing the envelope protein from the different genotypes.
Dengue is a major public health problem worldwide. Although several drug candidates have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials, none has been effective and at present, early recognition of severe dengue and timely supportive care are used to reduce mortality. While the first dengue vaccine was recently licensed, and several other candidates are in late stage clinical trials, future decisions regarding widespread deployment of vaccines and/or therapeutics will require evidence of product safety, efficacy and effectiveness. Standard, quantifiable clinical endpoints are needed to ensure reproducibility and comparability of research findings. To address this need, we established a working group of dengue researchers and public health specialists to develop standardized endpoints and work towards consensus opinion on those endpoints.
The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine is currently the only Ebola vaccine that has successfully completed efficacy trials and is being used in response efforts. This vaccine would not likely be viewed as appropriate for use in pregnant women outside the context of an Ebola outbreak.